Arzu Kasabalı1, Oytun Erbaş1,2

1Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Asbestos, cancer, checkpoint agents, CTLA4 protein, mesothelioma, PD-1 inhibitor, PD-L1 inhibitor.

Abstract

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive type of cancer more prevalent in males, although its most common etiology is exposure to asbestos fibers. Improvements in the prognosis of the disease are prevented due to the late manifestation of the disease, difficulties in diagnosis, and inadequate conventional treatments. In recent years, anti-cancer immunotherapy and treatments consisting of single or combined checkpoint inhibitors have been tested. Although programmed death-1 receptor, programmed death-ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte- associated protein 4 immunosuppressant checkpoint agents are promising for future developments, the studies showed that these approaches are currently inadequate due to toxicity problems and poor results. Despite the better understanding of carcinogenesis with new therapeutic approaches, further therapeutic research is needed for the treatment of MPM. A better understanding of multidisciplinary approaches is required to improve the prognosis of the disease and patient survival. Thus, it will be possible to develop more effective treatment strategies.