Taste-odor interaction in chocolate: Use of different aroma substances to reduce sugar amount
Güngör Merve Sencer, Ceyda Dadalı, Merve Kaya, Büşra Çakır, Yeşim Elmacı
Ege Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi, Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü, İzmir, Türkiye
Keywords: Aroma compounds; chocolate; sugar-reduced chocolate; taste-odour interaction
Objectives: This study aims to reduce sugar in chocolate by taste-odor interaction without changing the sweetness perceived by the consumer.
Materials and methods: Melon, anise, rose, linden, sugar, honey, cotton candy, and sugar aromas were added at 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg concentrations to 15% and 20% sugar-reduced chocolate formulations. The amount of sugars of the chocolate samples was measured. Sensory analysis and texture analysis were applied and the effect of the aroma substances used in the formulations and the reduced sugar ratio on the chocolate characteristics were identified.
Results: Rose (1 g/kg), cotton candy (1 g/kg), honey (0.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg), and sugar flavour enhancer (1 g/kg) aromas showed a positive effect in terms of increasing sweetness perception in 15% sugar-reduced chocolate formulations, while melon, anise, linden, and sugar aromas did not increase sweetness perception. It was found that 20% sugar-reduced chocolates with anise (1 g/kg), linden (1 g/kg), and sugar (0.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg) aromas were more preffered. However, aroma substances had no effect in increasing sweetness perception in 20% sugar-reduced chocolate formulations.
Conclusion: Our study results show that the addition of aroma substances to the chocolate formulation has no effect on hardness of chocolate, while reduced sugar amount in the chocolate samples increases the hardness of chocolate.