Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells: Their content, obtaining methods, and therapeutic effects
1Bioengineering, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Türkiye
2Institute of Experimental Medicine, Kocaeli, Türkiye
Keywords: Biogenesis, exosomes, isolation, mesenchymal stem cells, therapeutic effect.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles released by almost all types of cells into the extracellular space and are delimited by a lipid bilayer membrane, but they cannot duplicate themselves like cells. They can be divided into three subtypes: microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and exosomes, according to their size, synthesis mechanism, and origin. Although the size of EVs varies between 50 to 1000 nm, exosomes are the smallest vesicles derived from the endosomal pathway and are typically 30-150 nm in size. Exosomes can be derived from various sources, such as dendritic cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Among these sources, MSCs are the most convenient and efficient sources since they are biocompatible and offer potential as a therapeutic agent. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes contain a variety of biomolecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as nucleic acids such as deoxyribonucleic acid and micro-ribonucleic acid that have significant functions in transferring genetic material between cells. The MSCs-derived exosomes have emerged as an area of intense research interest in recent years due to their potential applications in various fields such as regenerative medicine, immunotherapy, and drug delivery. In this review, we not only emphasize exosomes and their biological functions but also examine MSC-derived exosomes and their obtaining methods in detail, as well as the current state of knowledge and research on their therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, we discuss new methodologies concerning the challenges of applying exosomes in healthcare and emphasize future perspectives to present effective and safe insights for exosome studies.
Cite this article as: Safgöl Ö, Erbaş O. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells: Their content, obtaining methods, and therapeutic effects. D J Med Sci 2023;9(1):24-38. doi: 10.5606/fng.btd.2023.128.
Idea, concept and writing the article, literature reviewing: Ö.S.; Supervising, references and fundings: O.E.
Data Sharing Statement:
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.